Our notes for General Studies paper 3 will include the extensive analysis on following topics

We have typically the synthesized the syllabus mentioned by UPSC for mains and prepared notes based on the previous years questioning pattern.

This is also having dynamic portion of syllabus that  change much with the time.

Most of the topics of the syllabus demand regular updates from recently in news issues. Respective topics will be updated via our daily current affairs.

Most of the questions of GS 3 will be based on opinion , analytical skills.

1. Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment

1. Planning in India

  • What is planning?
  • Types of Economic planning
  • History of planning in India
  • Planning commission
  • NITI Aayog
  • Five year plans in India
  • Implementations of five year plan
  • 11th and 12th Five year plans
  • Central planning
  • Changing nature and role of planning
  • Evaluation of planning in India

A. Mobilization of resources

  • Natural resources
  • water coal
  • Coal
  • Natural gas
  • So on
  • Human resources
  • Generation of employment
  • Skill development
  • Managing labour force
  • Intellectual property
  • Financial resources
    • Public Finance
    • Public Revenue
    • Types of Tax
    • Direct Tax Code (DTC)
    • Sources of Revenue
    • Public Expenditure
    • Debt Management Strategy
    • Public Debt
    • Finance Commission
    • Fiscal Policy
    • Deficit
    • Inflation
      • Causes of Inflation
      • Effects of Inflation
      • Measures of Inflation
      • Change in Reporting of Inflation
      • Measures to Check Inflation
    • India’s Balance of Payments And Foreign Trade
      • Balance of Payments (BOP)
      • Foreign Capital
      • Foreign Exchange
      • Capital Account Convertibility in India
      • India’s External Debt
      • NRI Deposits
      • Trade Composition
      • Export Promotion
      • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

B. Growth and Developments

  • Economic Growth
  • Economic Development
  • Measurement of Economic Development
  • Physical Quality of Life index (PQLI)
  • Millennium Development Goals {MDGS}
  • Different Levels of Economic Development
  • Economy and Environment
  • Environment Taxes
  • Inclusive development
  • Rural Development
  • Human development
  • National Income
    • National Income
    • Real National Income
    • Calculating National Income
    • Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)
    • National Organisations Related to National
    • Income Accounts

C. Employment

  • Demographic dividend
  • Formal and Informal labours


2. Inclusive growth and issues arising out of it

  • What is inclusive growth?
  • Characteristics of inclusive growth
  • Need for inclusive growth
  • Inclusive growth so far in India
  • Target of inclusive growth
  • Problems before inclusive growth strategies in India
  • Challenges
  • Promotion of inclusive growth

3. Government Budgeting

  • What is government budget?
  • Components of government budget
  • Revenue receipts
  • Capital receipts
  • Expenditures

4. Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers


A. Major crops

  • Food crops
  • Plantation crops
  • Horticulture crops
  • Commercial crops

B. Cropping pattern

  • Mixed farming
  • Subsistence farming
  • Intensive and extensive farming
  • Dry land farming
  • Rain fed farming

C. Issues in cropping pattern

  • Imbalance in pattern of food grains
  • Change in consumption pattern
  • Geographical factors affecting cropping pattern
  • Economic factors affecting cropping pattern
  • Government policies

D. Change in productivity

  • Low productivity
  • Urbanization
  • Incentives for farmers
  • Farm credits
  • Small size holdings
  • Poor storage facilities

E. Irrigation system

  • Canal irrigation
  • Tank irrigation
  • Well irrigation
  • Sprinkler irrigation
  • Drip irrigation
  • Surface irrigation


F. Transportation and marketing of agricultural produce.

  • Issues related to constraints
  • improper storage facilities
  • lack of grading and standardization
  • inadequate transport
  • lack of technology
  • middleman
  • inadequate farm credits


G. E technology in aid of farmers

  • Precision farming
  • Autonomous farming
  • Remote sensing
  • Mobile technology
  • Kisan credit card


5. Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; Issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions

1. Subsidies

  • WTO subsidies
  • Issues of Indian food security with WTO
  • Issues with nutrition based subsidy
  • Direct subsidies
  • Indirect subsidies


2. Minimum support price

  • Government pricing policy
  • Fair and remunerative price
  • Central price issue
  • Decentralized procurement policy
  • Issues of pricing in agriculture
  • Government price regulating Mechanisms


3. Public Distribution system

  • Objective
  • Functioning
  • limitations


4. Buffer stocks


5. Food security

  • National Food security mission
  • National food security act
  • Challenges
  • implementation


6. Technology missions

  • Integrated watershed management technique
  • National Mission on Agricultural Extension and technology
  • Space technology applications
  • Farm mechanization
  • National Agriculture innovation center
  • Agricultural Research and Education


6. Economics of Animal-Rearing, Food processing and related industries in India – Scope and significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream requirements, Supply Chain Management

1. Economics of animal rearing

  • Operation flood
  • Blue revolution
  • Integrated Dairy development plan
  • Fisheries industry
  • pink revolution
  • National live stock mission
  • Challenges of Animal rearing in India

2. Food processing

  • Food processing and related industries in India
  • Primary, secondary and tertiary industries
  • Silk industries
  • Meat processing industries
  • Milk and allied products


3. Scope and significance of food processing

  • Export
  • Import
  • Generating employment
  • MSMEs


4. Geographical location of food industries


5. Upstream and downstream requirements of food processing


6. Supply chain management

  • Generators
  • Distributors
  • Consumers


  • Mega food Parks
  • National Mission on food processing


7. Land reforms in India

1. Land reforms

  • British Land tenure system
  • Permanent settlement
  • Ryothwari system
  • Mahalwari
  • Features
  • implications


2. Peasants struggle for land


3. Land reforms before independence


4. Land ceiling policy


5. Tenancy reforms


6. Various movements related to land reforms


7. Government policies and acts


8. Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth

1. Liberalization and industrial political


2. New industrial policy

  • Liberalization
  • privatization
  • Globalization
  • Crisis of 1991
  • Domestic economy
  • trade imbalance
  • Balance of trade

3. Impact of 1991 reforms

  • Major reforms in liberalization
  • Financial sector reforms
  • Deregulation of Industrial Units and sectors
  • Tax reforms
  • Foreign exchange reforms
  • Trade and investment policy reforms

4. Manufacturing industry


5. Make in India

9. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

A. Infrastructure

  • Energy
  • Renewable energy
  • Non renewable energy
  • Energy scenario of India
  • Energy crisis of world
  • Coal production
  • power sector
  • power generation
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Oil and Natural Gas
  • Shale gas


 Port sector

  • Ports in India
  • Major ports
  • Minor ports
  • Issues in port development
  • Corporatization of ports
  • Maritime agenda
  • Inland water transport



  • Modernization of Indian railway
  • dedicated freight corridor projects


  • Aviation industries in India
  • privatization of airports
  • privatization vs. Modernization
  • Open sky policy
  • aviation policy
  • greenfield projects



  • National highway development program
  • PPP projects
  • road accidents
  • road safety
  • National highways
  • Expressways
  • Golden quadrilateral


10. Investment models


Foreign investment

Indian model of investment


11. Biodiversity, Environment and Disaster Management

Environmental impact assessment:

1 importance of EIA

2 Aspects of EIA—–

Rsik assessment

Post product monitoring

Environmental management

3 methods—–

Collection of data

Prediction of impact

Evolution of impact vs evolution of cost benefit


3 steps——-



Collection of benefit data

Impact protection

Migration measures

Public hearing

Decision making

Monitoring and implementation of plan

Risk assessment

4 environmental appraisal procedures in India

Ministry of environment and forest

National green tribunal

5 issues of environmental clearance

Economic development vs. sustainable development

Forest clearance and tribal right



Global environmental issue:


Global warming

Arctic melting

Acid rain

National environmental issue:

Fresh water decline

Forest decline

Pollution and development

Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity conservation:

National biodiversity act

Endangered species

Threated species extinct species

Legal measures to conserve —–

natural and



Project tiger

Project snow leopard

Project elephant






Energy conservation:

Energy efficiency

Energy and devolvement

Energy and environment

Green building

Smart cities


Water and energy conservation:

Depleting water resources

Fresh water scarcity

Impact on pollution world



Conservation of natural resources:


 National park


 Wildlife sanctuaries

Conservation of soil and land



Environmental pollution and degradation:

Air pollution

Acts and policies

Air pollution and control act

Water pollution

Acts and policies

Environmental protection act


Degradation of natural environment:

Impact of deforestation

Impact of fossil fuels

Impact of industrialisation

Impact of modern agriculture


13. Security Issues

  • Fastest growing inequality in income between the rich and the poor
  • Maoist/Naxalites insurgency in the heart of India
  • Fundamentalist forces (Terrorism):
  • Corruption and corrosion of public institutions
  • Illegal immigration to the north-east
  • Armed ethnic insurgencies in the north east (Manipur and Nagaland) and north (Kashmir)
  • Fragile, unstable neighbours
  • Communal forces
  • Many more……

14. Science and development

Appliction of technologies in daily life:

Bio digester toilets


Solar cell


Devloping new technologies :

  • ISRO
  • DRDO
  • Department of biotechnology
  • MNC’s
  • Intelectual property rights:
  • Indian IPR law 2005
  • IP——
  •          Trade marks
  •           Geographical locations
  •           Patents
  •             Copyrights
  •           Industrial design rights
  •           Trade secrets
  • Issues———-
  •          Patent issue———
  •                   Ever greening
  •                   Indo- us tussle
  •           Criticism against IPR
  • Ethical issue
  • More
  • Biotechnology:
  • Gene patenting
  • Doping
  • Recent advancements
  • Role of biotechnology



  • Interdisciplinary nature——-
  •         Electronics
  •                        Nanochips
  •                          Nano device
  •           Biotechnology
  •                               Targeted drug delivary
  •                                Nano medicine
  •            Chemistry
  •                                   Nano crystals
  •                                           Nanoparticles
  •                  Defence and security
  •                   Nano devices and more


  •  Environmental
  •   Health
  • More
  • Ethical issues


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Recent development
  • Rolr in defence
  • Role in scientific development
  • Laws of robotics


  • Development
  • Super computing
  • Semantic code web
  •  QR code
  • Internet
  • Ethernet
  • Net neutrality
  • More


Achievements of scientists:

  • CNR roa
  • Ashok sen
  • Homi BABA
  • APJ kalam
  • more


Indigenization of technology:

  • Defence equipments
  • Space settalites IRNSS
  • More


Information technogology:

Mobile technology

  •     3g, 4g and 5g
  •      Long term evolution
  •      Spectrum auction

Modern technology

  •     li-fi
  •      WI-FI backster
  •      Cloud computing
  •        Megharj initiative

Govt.’s policies 

  1.        Digital india programme
  2.        National fiber optic network
  3.         Natiopnal policy on IT
  4.          National telicom policy 2012


  •          Digital divide
  •            Freedom of speech
  •            Community radio issue
  •            Prasar bharathi autonomy issue


Space technology:

Setallite and types

  •        Geostationary INSAT
  •        Earth observation RISAT and IRS series
  •         Navigation GAGAN and IRNSS
  •        Space mission-  MOM, Chandra yaana, and Aditya
  •         Small settalite- jungoo

Types of orbits

  •   Polar
  •    Sun synchronous
  •     Geosynchronus
  •     Geostationary
  •      Low earth orbit
  •       Medium earth orbit

Launch vehicles

  •      SLV
    GSLV mark 3

International Space Missions

  •        NASA
  •         European Space Agency
  •        More

International Space Mission

  •       Comet mission  ROSETTA
  •       Mars mission—NASA
  •        Moon mission   NASA, ESA

Challenges for ISRO

  •     Fund
  •      R &D
  •     HRD
  •    More

Significance and achievements

  •  India’s report at world leve
  •   Domestic application of space research
  •  Rural development
  •  National Security
  • more