Our notes for General Studies paper 2 will include the extensive analysis on following topics

We have typically the synthesized the syllabus mentioned by UPSC for mains and prepared notes based on the previous years questioning pattern.

This is most dynamic portion of syllabus that  change much with the time.

Most of the topics of the syllabus demand regular updates from recently in news issues. Respective topics will be updated via our daily current affairs.

Most of the questions of GS 2 will be based on opinion , analytical skills.


We can divide GS 2 syllabus broadly into following topics

  1. Indian Constitution and Polity
  2. Governance and Social Justice
  3. International Relations

“Many topics under this portions are dymanic. So that awareness in current affairs is very important. If u are following our current affairs , you will get fluency in handling this”.

  1. Indian Constitution and Polity

A. Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure

  • Historical underpinnings
    • Company rule
    • Regulating Act
    • Crown rule
    • Charter Act
    • Indian Council Acts
  • Evolution of constitution
    • Constituent assembly
    • Objective resolution
    • Enactment of constitution
    • Enforcement of constitution
  • Features of constitution
    • Lengthiest written constitution
    • Drawn from various sources
    • Rigidity and flexibility
    • Federal system with unitary bias
    • Parliamentary form of government
    • Independent and integrated judiciary
    • More
  • Amendments to constitution
    • Procedure for amendment
    • Types of amendments
    • 42nd amendment
    • 44th amendment
    • 25th amendment
  • Significant provisions of constitution
    • Fundamental rights
    • Directive principles of State policy
    • Fundamental Duties
    • Environmental rights
  • Basic structure of constitution
    • Basic structure doctrine
    • Significant judgment
    • Keshavananda Bharathi case


Reading this topic smartly by updating recently in news issues will fetch you handful of marks. Don’t worry how I can do this; we will give updates in our current affairs. You just have to read them in organized manner.

 B. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein. Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these

  • Functions and responsibility of union
  • Functions and responsibility of states
  • Federal structure
    • cooperative Federalism
    • Financial relations
    • Emergency provisions
    • Governor’s role
    • All India services
  • Centre state relations
    • territorial extent of center state legislation
    • Distribution of legislative subjects
    • Parliamentary legislation in state field
    • Center’s control over state legislation
    • Administrative relations
    • Center’s directions to state
    • Cooperation between center and state
    • Financial relations
    • Distribution of tax revenues
    • Protection of state interests
  • Interstate relations
    • Interstate water disputes
    • Interstate council
    • interstate trade and commerce
    • Zonal councils
  • Devolution of powers
    • Panchayat level
    • District level
    • Challenges of unitary feature
    • Corruption
    • Administrative bottlenecks
    • Decentralization
    • Managing resources

 C. Separation of powers between various organs, Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

    • Composition of Parliament
    • The Working of the Parliament
    • Power, Functions, Privileges, Immunities and Role
    • How Far the Indian Parliament is Sovereign Body?
    • Sessions of Parliament Prorogation and Dissolution
    • Erosion of Parliament
    • Relationship between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
    • Budget
    • Parliamentary Committees
    • Speaker
    • State Legislature
    • President
    • Election of the President
    • Vice-President
    • Prime Minister
    • Council of Ministers and its Formation
    • Group of Ministers
    • Constitutional Duties of the Prime Minister
    • The Governor
    • Pardoning Power of the President and the Governor
    • The Chief Minister
    • The Council of Ministers of States
    • Ministries and Department of the Government
    • Supreme Court of India
    • High Court
    • Writ Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High
    • Courts
    • Public Interest Litigation
    • Judicial Activism
    • The Constitution ( 121st Amendment) Bill, 2014
  • Dispute redressal mechanisms
    • RTI
    • PIL
    • Tribunals
  • Dispute redressal institutions
    • Supreme Court
    • High court
    • CVC
    • Lok Adalat
    • Lokayukta
    • National Green Tribunals
    • Central Administrative tribunals
    • Competition appellate Tribunal

D. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

  • Introduction
  • Political Systems around the World
  • Salient features of constitution of various democratic countries
  • Borrowed Features of Indian Constitution
  • Comparison of Indian Constitution with that of others
  • Conclusion

 E. Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

Structure of executive

  • President
  • Prime minister
  • Council of ministers
  • Governors
  • Chief Ministers

Organization of executive

  • Union ministers
  • Secretariat
  • State ministers

Functioning of executive

  • Legislative
  • Executive
  • Judicial


  • Structure of judiciary
  • Supreme court
  • High court
  • Lower courts


Organization of judiciary

  • Chief justice of India
  • Supreme court judges
  • High court judges

Functioning of judiciary

  • Original jurisdiction
  • Appellate jurisdiction
  • Advisory jurisdiction

Union and state Ministries and department of government

  • Ministry of home
  • Ministry of Defence
  • Ministry of corporate affairs
  • Management of departments

Pressure Groups

  • Methods of pressure group
  • Functions of pressure group
  • Types of pressure group
  • Role of pressure groups in democracy
  • Methods operation of pressure groups in India
  • Limitations of pressure groups
  1. R

F. Representation of people’s act

G. Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Constitutional Bodies

  • Election Commission
  • Finance Commission
  • National Commission for SCs and ST’s
  • Special officer for Linguistic Minorities
  • Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)
  • Attorney General and Solicitor General
  • Advocate General of the State

Non- Constitutional Bodies

  • National Development Council
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • Central Vigilance Commission so on.

H. Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

 Statutory Bodies

  • NHRC
  • CVC
  • CIC
  • Lokpal
  • Lokayukta,

Regulatory bodies

 SEBI, RBI, AERC, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, TRAI, CCI, PFRDA, IRDA etc.

Quasi-judicial bodies

NHRC, CIC, Tribunals- National Green tribunal, Appellate Tribunal for Electricity and CIC, National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission etc.

I. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

  • Governance
  • Good governance
  • Important aspects of governance
  • Citizens charter
  • E governance
    • Applications
    • models
    • Success
    • Limitations
    • Potential

This portions of syllabus will be updated constantly with time through our current affairs.

J. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

This portions of syllabus will be updated constantly with time through our current affairs.

 K. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources


  • Millennium development goals
  • Maternal mortality
  • Infant mortality
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • National health mission
  • Universalization of health
  • Government policies and schemes


  • Issues related primary, secondary and university education
  • Research and development
  • Status of educational institutions
  • Right to education
  • Government schemes and programs
  • Government expenditures

Human resources

  • Ministry of HRD
  • Programs and policies
  • Mid-day meal
  • Rastriya uchchatar Sikhsha Abhiyan
  • Skill development
  • National Skill development programs


L. Issues relating to poverty and hunger

  • Poverty and development issues
  • Types of poverty
  • Measurement of poverty
  • Poverty line in India
  • State wise poverty comparison
  • incidence of poverty
  • Trend of poverty in India
  • vicious cycle of poverty
  • Causes of poverty in India
  • urban poverty

M. Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

 N. Role of civil services in a democracy.


International Relations


  • Tenets of India’s Foreign Policy
  • Outcome of India’s Foreign Policy
  • India-Africa
  • India-Brazil
  • India-Celac
  • India-Egypt
  • India-Iran
  • India-Indonesia
  • Indo-Malaysia
  • Indo-Mongolia
  • Indo-Philippines
  • Indo-Thailand
  • India-Vietnam
  • India-West Asia


  • India-Australia
  • India-Canada
  • India-France
  • India-Germany
  • India-Italy
  • India-Israel
  • India-Japan
  • India-Russia
  • Indo-Singapore
  • India-South Korea
  • India-UK
  • India- USA


  • India Afghanistan
  • India-Bangladesh
  • India-Bhutan
  • India and China
  • India-Nepal
  • India-Pakistan
  • India-Sri Lanka
  • India-Myanmar


  • APEC
  • Evolution
  • India and APEC
  • India and ASEAN Look East Policy
  • 5th BRICS Summit
  • European Union
  • Indian Ocean Rim Association
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)


  • High Level Committee on Indian Diaspora
  • The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIAS)
  • Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award
  • Overseas Citizenship of India
  • Know India Programme (KIP)
  • Pravasi Bharatiya Bima Yojana (PBBY)



  • United Nations
  • Purposes and Principles of UN
  • Observers and Non-Members
  • Main Bodies of the UN
  • The Trusteeship Council
  • The International Court of justice (ICJ)
  • World Bank
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF
  • Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
  • WTO Agreements